Spot exchange essentially means buying and selling of bitcoins or alts on the spot. It differentiates from futures/options and other derivatives. It is the "underlying" market where actual coins are being exchanged.
A perpetual contract is a derivative product that is similar to a traditional futures contract. It allows traders to profit from both bearish and bullish markets by choosing either a short or long position.
Futures are standardized agreements that allow traders, investors, and commodity producers to speculate on the future price of an asset.
An option is a financial derivative that represents a contract sold by one party (the option writer) to another party (the option holder).